A Dictionary of Botanical Terms John Stevens Henslow (1796 – 1861) was a botanist and geologist. Prefixes and suffixes are to be found at the appropriate places within the entries for their first letters #gardeningbasics Crown Division: Asexual type of reproduction, involving the division of the base of the stem. Conifer: Woody trees or shrubs that are gymnosperms and bear cones. Cloning Vector: Molecule of DNA that replicates and transfers DNA from one cell to another. Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years Sclereid: Sclereid is a cell, characterized by the presence of a thick secondary wall and absence of a protoplast. nedger. Dicotyledon: Angiosperm class whose seeds feature two cotyledons. Meristem: Region of undifferentiated, actively dividing, growing cells from which new cells emerge. It requires oxygen for the process. Adhesive Force: It is the force of attraction between dissimilar molecules due to which they stay together. Ecosystem: System involving the interactions of living organisms with each other as well as with the non-living environment. Basic Botany-Terms to Know. Osmosis: The differential behavior of membrane for the purpose of diffusion of water and other solvents. It is found within motile unicellular organisms. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. It is a leaf that has evolved from a branch system and is characterized by branching veins. Cutin: Fatty or waxy substance making up the cuticle. Plasmodesmata: It pertains to a narrow hole in the elementary wall, that comprises some cytol, cell membrane, and a desmotubule. Bark: Tissues of the vascular cambium forming tough layer on the outer region of the woody stems and roots. Incipient Plasmolysis: The point at which the protoplasm just begins to stop exerting pressure on the cell wall, when the plant cell membrane shrinks after losing water. Mitochondrion: Rod shaped organelles present in several eukaryotic cells, that work as powerhouse of the cell, by breaking down oxygen and nutrients and releasing energy in the form of ATP. Often variety in common usage and abbreviated as var. Botany remains an incredibly interesting and useful subject today. Can be a floral bud or leaf bud. Sieve Plate: Sieve plates are the pores, in the cell walls of the plant, which facilitate the movement of liquid matter. Comprise mainly of pairs of choices. instead of inside a living organism. Currently this … The principles and findings of botany have provided the base for such applied sciences as agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Petals: The colored segments of the corolla of the flower, which most often are involved in drawing in pollinating agents. Cytochrome: Protein containing iron, acting as small electron carriers by transferring molecules in electron transport system. Sporophyll: A sporophyll is a modified leaf bearing sporangia. Basic botany. This histone and nucleosome free DNA is called naked DNA. Capsule: Dry, dehiscent fruit consisting of two or more carpels that splits in several ways at maturity to release seeds. Angiosperm: Plants with seeds enclosed in ovaries that mature into a fruit. Plants are of various types, ranging from edible with medicinal properties, to downright poisonous. Gametes associated with the same mating type cannot fuse, and require compatible mating types for syngamy. It usually comprises narrow tracheids in gymnosperms and few or no vessels in angiosperms. Basic Botany differs from the average botany text book in that the author constantly points out and stresses the underlying unity of the different aspects of botany with which he deals. 2) Are you a keen amateur? Epiphyte: Plants growing above the ground, that attach themselves to other plants without being a parasite. Cell Division: Process of division of cell with the purpose of growth or reproduction. Anthocyanin: Water soluble pigment located in the cell sap, which varies from red to blue in color. Taxis: The movement of a cell that is triggered by external stimulus, towards or away from the stimulus source, is known as taxis. Plastid: These are major organelles found in plant cells, as well as algal cells. Callus: Tissue formed over damaged areas of the plant in the form of a seal, thereby protecting it from further deterioration, and allowing the wound to heal. General Botany Trivia Test your knowledge and read about plant anatomy, how plants work and the life cycle of flowering plants with a few basic botanical terms. Sepal: The sepal is the outermost part of a flower, resembling a leaf, which forms the calyx of the flower and surrounds its reproductive organs. Objectives. Selectively Permeable Membrane: It is a membrane that facilitates the transmission of certain molecules through it by the process of diffusion. Chlorophyll: Green pigment found in plants, cyanobacteria and algae, which is involved in capturing light energy required for photosynthesis. Integument: Outermost wall of the ovule, which develops into the seed coat. Central Cell Nuclei: Mostly two in number nuclei uniting with sperm to form primary endosperm nucleus in embryo sac. Fibrous Root System: Cluster of similarly sized roots. Receptacle: Expanded portion of the peduncle, wherein various parts of the flower are attached. Thallus: Thallus is a plant which doesn’t feature true stems, roots, leaves or vascular system. Laticifer: Specialized ducts or cells that bear resemblance to vessels. Transposons: The sequences of DNA which can move to different positions within the genome of a single cell through the process of transposition. Stanford University Press, 1964. Coleoptile: The first leaf above ground level forming a sheath around the tip of the stem, so as to protect the emerging shoot (plumule) of monocotyledons like grasses and oats. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Gametangium: Cell in which gametes are produced. Protection Report R8-PR 40 July 1999 Glossary of Botanical Terms Appressed-Lying close and flat against, as hairs against a surface. Syngamy: Syngamy is the process fusion of a sperm and an egg. Cell: Microscopic structure forming the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. Vessel Element: Single conducting cells of the xylem featuring a few perforations, which permit flow of water from one vessel to another. Selectively Impermeable Membrane: It is a barrier which regulates the movement of substances, allowing some substances to pass rapidly, and others to slow down. Histones: Basic nuclear proteins forming complexes with DNA to form nucleosomes and then complexing further to form chromosomes. It contains several types of cells such as tracheids, vessel elements, parenchyma, sclereids, fibers, etc. Enation: Tiny green leaf like structures growing on the stems of whisk ferns and do not have vascular tissue. Agamospermy: Asexual reproduction methods involving cells of only the ovule to yield seeds and fruit. Following is the glossary of botanical terms and definitions with a complete compilation of botany terms for your reference. Retrovirus: Common type of plant virus whose genetic material is single-stranded RNA. Its reaction center is P700. Bryophyte: Phylum comprising non-vascular plants: lacking xylem and phloem. Basic Botany for Wetland Assessment by The Swamp School, LLC. Hybrid: Heterozygous progeny of two parents differing in one or more inheritable attributes. Imperfect Flower: Flowers lacking either carpels or stamens or both. It provides support or performs the absorption function in them. Gills: Flattened plates of compact mycelium radiating to the outer region of the stalk on the bottom portion of the mushroom cap. Primary Producer: Any green plant which has the ability to convert light energy or chemical energy into organic substance. These help in transpiration. Early Wood: Wood formed during the early part of the growing season, characterized by large, thin walled cells. Dikaryotic: Presence of two nuclei in a cell. Many different terms exist to describe the shape of a leaf, but here are some of the most common ones you will come across. Hygroscopic Water: Water chemically adhering to soil particles due to which they are unavailable to plants. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Root: Organ of the plant situated below the ground and absorbs water and mineral salts. Monoecious: Plants which possess both unisexual male and female flowers or cones on the same plant. Apical Dominance: Hormones produced at the tip of the shoot cause suppression of lateral bud development in growing plant shoots. It is formed when DNA from at least two organisms is taken. Genus: Classification category located between a family and species. ‎Botany Dictionary - Definitions Terms Have you ever been in a conversation where people speak Botany terms and you found it difficult to understand? Megasporocyte: Diploid cells undergoing meiosis to form megaspores. Genetics: Branch of biology involving the study of heredity, which deals with the differences and resemblances of organisms entailing from the interaction of their genes and the habitat. Anabolism: Process of metabolism by which various small molecules are combined to form large ones. Anther: Part of the stamen containing sporogenous tissue which produces pollen. Indusium: Umbrella shaped membranous tissue covering, located on the fern sorus. This entails to increase in the growth of algae and various other organisms. Sieve Tube: Sieve tube is a tube formed by cells joined end-to-end in order to facilitate the flow of nutrients in flowering plants. Protein Sequencing: This is a process that includes determining the amino acid sequences of its constituent peptides; and also finding out what compliance it follows and if it comprises any non-peptide molecules. Hypha: Threadlike like tubular filaments found in fungi. Heterospory: Formation of both megaspores and microspores. Centrioles: Small, cylindrical cell organelles found in animals and some algae and fungi. All leaflets are attached to the rachis. Thylakoid: The thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment within the chloroplasts and cyanobacteria which is a site for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Adenosine Triphoshate (ATP): A nucleotide comprising adenine, ribose and three phosphate units, is the major energy currency of the cell. Leaf Gap: Area above leaf trace, wherein conducting tissues are absent; as seen in fern vascular tissue. Callose: A plant polysaccharide composed of glucose residues linked together through β-1, 3-linkages secreted by an enzyme complex (callose synthase), resulting in the hardening or thickening of plant cell walls. Rachis: Rachis is the extension of the axis of petiole or leafstalk in the compound leaf. Fluid Mosaic Model: A plasma membrane model according to which, the proteins are embedded in the lipids throughout the membrane which gives a mosaic appearance to it. Herbarium: Collection of plant specimens, which are pressed, dried, mounted on paper, identified and then labeled. Autotropic: Organisms converting inorganic matter into organic material for the purpose of sustenance. Petiole: The lithesome stem which attaches a leaf to the stem. Trichome: Trichomes are the various extensions developing from the epidermis of the plant which are meant to provide protection to the plant. Tubulin: Tubulin is a protein which leads to formation of microtubules on polymerization. Located just behind the tip of the root, this root hair helps absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Basic Science Terms - Basic Science Terms * * DOING SCIENCE Science starts with a question. We know that botany is defined as the scientific study of plants. New York, Blakiston Co. [1954] (OCoLC)1084477273: Document Type: Ectomycorrhiza: One type of mycorrhizal association, wherein the fungi do not invade the cell membrane, instead invade the root cortex cells. leaf axil. Germ Plasm: Aggregate of all genes of a species or organism groups. This means the plant will not flower during too short or too long days.
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